Fluvial Processes and Systems

6.4 Floods

Floods, an overflow of water in one place, are a natural part of the water cycle, but they can be terrifying forces of destruction. Floods can occur for a variety of reasons, and their effects can be minimized in several ways. Perhaps unsurprisingly, floods tend to affect low-lying areas most severely. Floods usually occur when precipitation falls more quickly than that water can be absorbed into the ground or carried away by rivers or streams. Waters may build up gradually throughout weeks when an extended period of rainfall or snowmelt fills the ground with water and raises stream levels.

Flash floods are sudden and unexpected, taking place when very heavy rains fall over a very brief period. A flash flood may do its damage miles from where the rain falls if the water travels far down a dry streambed so that the flash flood occurs far from the location of the original storm.

Densely vegetated lands are less likely to experience flooding. Plants slow down water as it runs over the land, giving it time to enter the ground. Even if the ground is too wet to absorb more water, plants still slow the water’s passage and increase the time between rainfall and the water’s arrival in a stream; this could keep all the water falling over a region to hit the stream at once. Wetlands function as a buffer between land and high-water levels and play a key role in minimizing the impacts of floods. Flooding is often more severe in areas that have been recently logged.

When a dam breaks along a reservoir, flooding can be catastrophic. High water levels have also caused small dams to break, wreaking havoc downstream. People try to protect areas that might flood with dams, and dams are remarkably effective. People may also line a riverbank with levees, high walls that keep the stream within its banks during floods. A levee in one location may force the high water up or downstream and cause flooding there. The New Madrid Overflow in the image above was created with the recognition that the Mississippi River sometimes cannot be contained by levees and must be allowed to flood.

Not all the consequences of flooding are negative. Rivers deposit new nutrient-rich sediments when they flood, and so floodplains have traditionally been suitable for farming. Flooding as a source of nutrients was essential to Egyptians along the Nile River until the Aswan Dam was built in the 1960s. Although the dam protects crops and settlements from the annual floods, farmers must now use fertilizers to feed their crops.

Floods are also responsible for moving substantial amounts of sediments about within streams. These sediments provide habitats for animals, and the periodic movement of sediment is crucial to the lives of several types of organisms. Plants and fish along the Colorado River, for example, depend on seasonal flooding to rearrange sand bars.

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Physical Geography and Natural Disasters by R. Adam Dastrup, MA, GISP is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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